The Earth Summit

the earth summit 2012
Important Points on The Earth Summit 1992, 2002 and 2012 and related.
  • First Summit on Environment : 1972 – The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHS) in Stockholm
  •  The Earth Summit 1992 also known as The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit or Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92).
  • Earth Summit 1992 was held in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • Agenda 21: The “21” in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st century.
  • The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development adopted a set of principles (Total 27 principle).
  • Earth Summit 2002 : Also known as The United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) or “Rio+10”.
  • The Kyoto Protocol : Decreasethe emission of six numbers of Green House Gases namely Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
  • Earth Summit 2012 : Also Known as The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) or Rio 2012 or Rio+20.
  • Rio 2012 or Earth Summit 2012 was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
the earth summit 1992
The Earth Summit 1992

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June in 1992.

The Rio Summit 1992 (On the 20th anniversary of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment) was an unprecedented meeting of representatives, including 117 heads of state, 2,400 representatives from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and nearly 10,000 journalists. An additional 17,000 NGO representatives attended a parallel NGO forum that provided recommendations to the Earth Summit.

The focus of this conference was the state of the global environment and the relationship between economics, science and the environment in a political context.

The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:

  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
  • Agenda 21
  • Forest Principles

Moreover, important legally binding agreements (Rio Convention) were opened for signature:

  • Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) 
  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development : The Rio Declaration on environment and development was approved by the United Nations during the Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro on June 1992. It was aimed at reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on June 1972.

The Declaration adopted a set of principles (Total 27 principle) to guide the future development. These principles define the right of people to development, and their responsibilities to safeguard the common environment.

What is Agenda 21 ?

Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. The “21” in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st century. One major objective of the Agenda 21 initiative is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

Agenda 21 recommended the establishment of an institutional mechanism for effective follow-up to the Rio Conference as well as to enhance international cooperation and rationalize the intergovernmental decision-making capacity for the integration of environment and development issues and to examine the progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 at the national, regional and international levels. Accordingly, the UN General Assembly in 1992, created the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) as a functional commission of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) with the mandate to review progress in the implementation of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.

Earth Summit 2002

The United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), also called Earth Summit 2002, was an international convention on the environment and sustainable development held in Johannesburg, South Africa, on August 26 to September 6, 2002.

The Earth Summit 2002 produced the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development, an international agreement on the environment and sustainable development.

It was therefore also informally nicknamed “Rio+10”.

The Earth Summit 2012

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), also known as Rio 2012Rio+20 or Earth Summit 2012 was the third international conference on sustainable development aimed at reconciling the economic and environmental goals of the global community. The Summit was held on June 20-22, June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The objectives of the UNCSD 2012 :

  1. Securing renewed Political commitment for sustainable development
  2. Assessing the Progress made since Rio Conference and the remaining gaps in implementation of the outcomes
  3. Addressing new and emerging challenges.

The themes for the UNCSD 2012 :

  1. Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication; and
  2. Institutional Framework for sustainable development
The Kyoto Protocol 

The Kyoto Protocol is the only agreement to have emerged from the UNFCCC process that imposed binding limits on the emission of six numbers of Green House Gases namely Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on Dec. 11, 1997, and entered into force on Feb. 16, 2005. Under the Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the countries in the European Community committed themselves to binding targets for GHG emissions for the first compliance period from 2008 to 2012.

List of Earth Summit
  1. 1972 – The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHS) in Stockholm
  2. 1982 – The 1982 Earth Summit in Nairobi(Kenya). An Earth Summit was held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 10 to 18 May 1982. The events of the time (Cold War) and the disinterest of US President Ronald Reagan (who appointed his delegated daughter Of the United States) made this summit a failure. It is not even mentioned as an official Earth Summit.
  3. 1992 – The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  4. 2002 – The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg(South Africa)
  5. 2012 – The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) or Rio+20, also took place in Rio de Janeiro(Brazil)
  6. 2018 – The 7th Digital Earth Summit 2018, DES-2018, on Digital Earth for Sustainable Development in Africa was to be held in El Jadida, Morocco, at the Faculty of Science, Chouaib Douakkali University from April 17-19, 2018
  7. 2019 – The Santiago Climate Change Conference, featuring the 25th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 25) to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) and meetings of the UNFCCC subsidiary bodies, will convene from 2nd to 13th of December 2019.

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